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IDProjectCategoryView StatusLast Update
0003927OpenFOAMBugpublic2022-11-04 21:43
ReporterLukasz Bazydlo Assigned Tohenry  
Status closedResolutionno change required 
OSUbuntuOS Version20.04 
Product Version10 
Summary0003927: chtMultiRegionFoam - results seem wrong when using constAnIsoSolid in cylindrical coordinates
DescriptionA hollow cylinder body with a heat flux of 1000 W/m2 specified at the inner radius wall and constant temperature of 300 K at the outer radius wall, all other walls zeroGradient. Thermal conductivity is specified using constAnIsoSolid as (1.3 28 28) in the cylindrical coordinate system, the rest of the material properties are constant. The obtained results do not match the analytical solution and exactly the same set-up in ANSYS Fluent. The radial component of conductivity seems overestimated ~2 times. Also there is a discrepancy between results obtained using kappa (1.3 28 28) and isotropic kappa 1.3, which should be the same considering that side walls are insulated so axial and angular components should not matter (described behaviour can be observed while using Fluent).

The issue seems like a strange behaviour of the anisotropic material model, also the documentation/built-in tutorials seem to lack information about the topic.
Steps To Reproduce1. Run the attached case
2. In file constant/solid/physicalProperties change entry mixture/transport/kappa to value (1.3 1.3 1.3)
in file constant/solid/physicalProperties change entry thermoType/transport to value constIsoSolid and entry mixture/transport/kappa to 1.3
3. Compare both results
Additional InformationInner radius wall temperatures obtained by analytical calculations and Fluent/OpenFOAM:
- Analytical - T_inner = 308.86 K
- Fluent cylindrical aniso (1.3 28 28) - T_inner = 308.81 K
- Fluent iso 1.3 - T_inner = 308.81 K
- OpenFOAM cylindrical aniso (1.3 28 28) - T_inner = 304.84 K
- OpenFOAM cylindrical aniso (1.3 1.3 1.3) - T_inner = 308.46 K
- OpenFOAM iso 1.3 - T_inner = 308.46 K

Based on obtained temperature value in case of OpenFOAM cylindrical aniso (1.3 28 28), the effective radial kappa is 2.38 W/mK
TagsNo tags attached.


Lukasz Bazydlo

2022-11-04 11:35


model_scheme.PNG (54,986 bytes)   
model_scheme.PNG (54,986 bytes)   
comparison.png (46,910 bytes)   
comparison.png (46,910 bytes)   
comparison2.PNG (139,656 bytes)   
comparison2.PNG (139,656 bytes)   


2022-11-04 12:18

manager   ~0012855

The handling of anisotropic thermal conductivity is incomplete in OpenFOAM-10 and before, it assumes alignment with the boundary. I have recently completed a rewrite of the entire solid energy transport in OpenFOAM-dev which might/should resolve this issue:

commit 01d2c6ec52bf0c5056d06d26245f0f46af1eefe3
Author: Henry Weller <>
Date: Mon Oct 24 19:01:52 2022 +0100

    solidThermophysicalTransportModel::anisotropic: Added heat-flux correction qCorr
    to handle the wall heat-flux generated by the tangential components of the
    temperature gradient when the thermal conductivity tensor Kappa does not align
    with the boundary. This is an uncommon situation but for cases where it is
    important it must be handled correctly; previously this term was ignored.
    For efficiency the temperature gradient field is automatically cached so that it
    is not evaluated for every patch for which Kappa is not aligned with the
    boundary, and the correction is evaluated and applied only for those patches.
    The heat-flux correction qCorr is used in the coupled and external heat-flux
    boundary conditions coupledTemperature and externalTemperature.


2022-11-04 12:26

manager   ~0012856

You will need to check very carefully the setup of the coordinate system, it looks like from your results that the first component of kappa is not in the radial direction. In the OpenFOAM-dev implementation you can write out the Kappa tensor field and study it.


2022-11-04 18:57

manager   ~0012857

I could not unpack the test-case, RAR is not a standard Linux compression format.

Try your case with (28 1.3 28) and (28 28 1.3)

Lukasz Bazydlo

2022-11-04 20:49

reporter   ~0012858

Sorry, I have uploaded the case in .tar.gz format now. Regarding your suggestions:
- I have already tried running the case with (28 1.3 28) and (28 28 1.3) using OpenFOAM 10. Tried the same approach again with OpenFOAM-dev and uploaded the comparison of the results. The behaviour in OpenFOAM-dev is different - all the results were the same. Also, I have tried to use (1.3 0.1 0.1) with OpenFOAM-dev and got max temp equal to 308.44 K, which is close to the value obtained using isotropic properties.
- I have run the same case using freshly installed OpenFOAM-dev - the inner radius temperature decreased to 300.279 K.
- I don't know how to get a kappa tensor using OpenFOAM-dev but I managed to obtain a KappaLocal tensor from OpenFOAM 10 using the debugger. The values were KappaLocal[0] = 9.73, [1] = 12.41, [2] = 0, [3] = 19.57, [4] = 0, [5] = 28. I presume that this is just an example value for 1 point, but I hope it might help.
comparison_10_vs_dev.PNG (185,279 bytes)   
comparison_10_vs_dev.PNG (185,279 bytes)   
OpenFOAM-dev_1.3-0.1-0.1.PNG (75,429 bytes)   
OpenFOAM-dev_1.3-0.1-0.1.PNG (75,429 bytes)   


2022-11-04 21:43

manager   ~0012859

I set the case up in dev, reorganising as a solid only case running with

foamRun -solver solid

setting the coordinate system in thermophysicalTransport

model anisotropic;

    type cartesian;
    origin (0 0 0);
        type cylindrical;
        axis (0 0 1);

and used a more accurate grad scheme because of the horrible tet-mesh:

    default leastSquares;

and I get the same results for

constIsoSolid with kappa 1.3
constAnIsoSolid with kappa (28 28 28)
constAnIsoSolid with kappa (1.3 28 28)

There is no bug, this is a user-support request, if you need further assistance you will need to arrange for a support contract.


2022-11-04 21:43

manager   ~0012860

User error and support request.

Issue History

Date Modified Username Field Change
2022-11-04 11:35 Lukasz Bazydlo New Issue
2022-11-04 11:35 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: test_anisotropic_conduction.rar
2022-11-04 11:35 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: model_scheme.PNG
2022-11-04 11:35 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: comparison.png
2022-11-04 11:35 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: comparison2.PNG
2022-11-04 12:18 henry Note Added: 0012855
2022-11-04 12:26 henry Note Added: 0012856
2022-11-04 18:55 henry File Deleted: test_anisotropic_conduction.rar
2022-11-04 18:57 henry Note Added: 0012857
2022-11-04 20:49 Lukasz Bazydlo Note Added: 0012858
2022-11-04 20:49 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: comparison_10_vs_dev.PNG
2022-11-04 20:49 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: OpenFOAM-dev_1.3-0.1-0.1.PNG
2022-11-04 20:49 Lukasz Bazydlo File Added: test_anisotropic_conduction.tar.gz
2022-11-04 21:43 henry Note Added: 0012859
2022-11-04 21:43 henry Assigned To => henry
2022-11-04 21:43 henry Status new => closed
2022-11-04 21:43 henry Resolution open => no change required
2022-11-04 21:43 henry Note Added: 0012860